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The beginnings of the protection of cultural assets under EU law date back to 1993. After the abolition of internal borders between EU Member States, cultural exchange and the art trade were facilitated; however export control of national art treasures became more difficult. In 1993, the EU remedied this situation and adopted two new regulations: (1) the Directive on the return of cultural goods unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State and (2) the Regulation on the export of cultural goods from the EU to third countries. Those two regulations have only partially harmonised the EU Member States’ rules on the export and return of cultural goods. This harmonization concerns only the cultural competences that have been interfered and thus covers assistance in ensuring a more extensive application of national export regulations and in controlling the export of nationally valuable cultural goods from the EU into third countries. As a result, the EU legal framework is regulated differently for the EU’s internal and external market. The framework within the internal market is determined by Art. 36 TFEU and the Directive 2014/60/EU, while Art. 208 TFEU and the Export Regulation 116/2009/EG govern the external market. Due to these different regulations, the crucial question of this dissertation arises: Why and to what extent has the system of export and return of cultural goods been defined separately and differently in the internal and external relations of the EU and what problems arise from this? In order to answer this question, Weronika Hyjek examines the basic principles of the protection of cultural assets under EU law between the internal and external relations of the EU from five points of view.
keywordsAusfuhr Ausfuhrgenehmigung Binnenmarkt Europarecht Kulturgüterschutz Kulturgut Kunsthandel Kunstrecht Rechtswissenschaft RL 2014/60/EU Rückgabe Unionsrecht VO 116/2009/EG Warenverkehrsfreiheit
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