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Is there an effective liability for environmental damage? The sinking of the tanker “Exxon Valdez” has brought about an innovation in US environmental law. The dying of large areas of great forest and the Sandoz case have inspired thought in Germany. Who is responsible for the damages already incurred? How are damages to be replaced? Can environmental damage be quantified?
For the replacement of damages, legal liability systems have been created, which are primarily of civil law, the compensation of damages between two private parties. In Germany there is a public liability system, which places the party "generality" against the operator of plants as an opponent and demands compensation, restoration of natural species and habitats, water bodies and soils. In 2004, the Directive on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (the Environmental Liability Directive or UHRL), was adopted. In Germany, the appropriate implementation took place in 2007 with the Environmental Damages Act (USchadG). A comparison with US environmental legislation and an overview of the implementation of the Environmental Liability Directive in the Member States completes the study. Julia-Carolina Holz gives a detailed look at the fundamentals and research status of enforcement deficits and examines the enforcement of the Environmental Liability Directive as well as the Environmental Damages Act.
keywordsBetreiberhaftung Biodiversität Europäische Richtlinie Europarecht Gefährdungshaftung Implementationsdefizit Umwelthaftungsrecht Umwelthaftungsrichtlinie Umweltrecht Umweltschaden Umweltschadensbegriff Umweltschadensgesetz Vollzugsdefizit Vollzugseignung
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