about this bookdeutsch english Motor performances frequently vary depending on an internal or external instructed focus of attention (Wulf, 2007). In the context of the “attentional focus” research, however, some research findings lead to a critical examination of the effects of attentional focusing (eg Poolton, Masters, Maxwell & Raab, 2006). The inconsistent use of attention-directing instructions lead to an inhomogeneous picture of the effects of "attentional focus" research. Wulf, Töllner & Shea (2007) confound purely focus instructions with additional instructions that can lead to more conscious control processes. The aim of the present experiments is to dissociate the effects of pure focus instructions and those additional parts of instructions that relate to more conscious control processes. The experiments of the present series of experiments, designed as a replication of Wulf et al. (2007), are applied to examine the effects of a set of instructions (2 pure focus instructions only & 2 focus instructions with additional parts of instructions that relate to more conscious control processes) for bi- & mono pedal standing on solid ground and on an inflated rubber disk. The Center of Pressure variability was calculated as the dependent variable based on the collection of posturographic data. All experiments are based on the assumption that the major effect of a reduction in performance is expected due to the additionally provoked conscious control processes, independently of the focus condition. As expected, the use of confounded focus instructions (focus instructions with additional instructions) leads to a significant reduction in performance in all experiments (except for the bipedal standing on solid ground). The pure focus effect does not reach significance in any experiment, while the confounded focus effect only reaches significance for bipedal standing on an inflated rubber disk and mono pedal standing on solid ground.
keywordsAufmerksamkeitsfokussierung Bewegungswissenschaft Gleichgewichtsregulation Instruktionen Motorische Kontrollprozesse Replikation Sportwissenschaft Standaufgabe
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