Forschungsarbeit: Studien zu Niederkirchen im Bistum Passau

Studien zu Niederkirchen im Bistum Passau

Fünfzehn Kirchen im heutigen Bezirk Zwettl im Waldviertel

Studien zur Geschichtsforschung des Mittelalters, Band 40

Hamburg 2020, 142 Seiten
ISBN 978-3-339-11456-3 (Print), ISBN 978-3-339-11457-0 (eBook)

Babenberger, Baiern, Bischof Altmann, Bistum Passau, Eigenkirche, Geschichte, Mittelalter, Niederkirche, Niederösterreich, Passau, Pfarre, Pfarrentwicklung, Waldviertel, Zwettl

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A consideration of the concept of the „rectory“ shows that it is not true until the 11th century due to the source and because of the existing system of churches owned by its lord. At that time, houses of worship, whether built by spiritual or secular donors, serve the pastoral care of the association of persons belonging to the manor. Characteristics of the manor also apply to the church dominion and consist, among other things, that a landlord has full control over everything erected on his land. This makes the church an own church of the builder.

The establishment of an own church and the transfer of assets bring advantages: material income can be increased, as a special property invested in the church is better secured than others, especially in the case of inheritance divisions. Thus, „the estates of church foundations are already among the pious foundations that were common in the Middle Ages, which not only cost the founder less, but also bring him material benefits“. The bishop recognizes the secular landlords and some of the spiritual church lords as partners, also as economic partners. Due to canonical provisions for the foundation of a church, the diocesan bishop has a great deal of influence from the outset.

Only towards the end of the 11th century it can be said that a parish organization was set up, which then lasted for about two hundred years. This process is first driven by the bishops of Passau, who are supported by the German rulers. The influence of the nobility can be kept to a minimum during this development for a long time. From the 12th century onwards, secular and other spiritual institutions, especially monasteries, gradually become established during the foundation of the parish.

In this work, studies on the development of a Parish Church system in this area are to be presented. The main examples are the efforts regarding architectural changes in connection with historical datas. Thus, changes of ownership or catastrophe have almost consistently led to structural measures. The typological view is limited to the selected fifteen churches in the region around Zwettl and cannot therefore allow general conclusions regarding the preference of a type. All in all, the present work is intended to contribute to the study of the sacral architecture in the Waldviertel in Lower Austria.

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