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The work examines the Works Constitution Act (BetrVG) concepts of employee and establishment as basic concepts of Works Constitution Law with regard to their compatibility with the challenges of technical progress which are reflected in the „working world 4.0“. According to § 5 BetrVG, the term „employee“ determines the personal scope of application of the law. The operational term is relevant for the material scope of application according to § 1 Subsection 1, Sentence 1 BetrVG.
Both the concept of employee and the concept of establishment are defined in a largely uniform manner by long-standing rulings and literature. Actual changes such as the emergence of new forms of work or changes in the organisational structures of companies complicate the subsumption under the concepts. From the „classic“ establishment or employee to the virtual establishment or freelancer, there are many conceivable forms. The definitions must no longer be based only on established structures, but must also include possible new models.
The range of the personal and material scope of application has significant practical implications: The definition of the concept of establishment is particularly important for restructuring and for works council elections. The determination of the (optional) establishment is starting point of a proper execution of work council elections. The misreading of the concept of establishment can lead to the nullity or voidability of the work council election and is accompanied by high costs for the employer. Furthermore the personal and material scope of application gives rise to the co-determination and participation rights of the work council according to §§ 87 et seq. BetrVG.
The work examines the concepts with regard to their dogmatics in order to demonstrate the flexibility of the existing definitions with regard to the challenges of a modern working world. In particular, the possibility to form arbitrary works councils according to § 3 Subsection 1 BetrVG leads to an extensive flexibilisation, which is individually tailored to the structures of the company.
keywordsArbeit 4.0 Arbeitnehmerbegriff Arbeitsrecht Betriebliche Mitbestimmungsrechte Betriebsbegriff Betriebsverfassungsrecht Betriebszugehörigkeit Crowdwork Digitalisierung Einheitlicher Leitungsapparat Europäisierung der Mitbestimmung Gewillkürte Betriebsräte Neue Arbeitsformen Technischer Fortschritt Typusbegriff
Ihr Werk im Verlag Dr. Kovač
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