Doktorarbeit: Frauen in der Naturheilbewegung: Anna Fischer-Dückelmann und Klara Muche

Frauen in der Naturheilbewegung: Anna Fischer-Dückelmann und Klara Muche

Ihre Lebenswege, medizinischen und insbesondere frauenheilkundlichen Auffassungen

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Schriften zur Medizingeschichte, volume 7

Hamburg , 366 pages

ISBN 978-3-339-10264-5 (print) |ISBN 978-3-339-10265-2 (eBook)

About this book englishenglish


Considered superficially, the naturopathic movement in the German Empire seem to have been dominated by men, as it has generally been in the society and especially in conventional medicine. Women first became engaged in naturopathy and thus in the women and life refrom movement since the end of the 19th century. Their emancipatory stance allowed them a realistic view and the assessment of the social relations. Their common goal was the (sexual) medical enlightenment of an explicitely chosen female readership.

Anna Fischer-Dückelmann and Klara Muche were the two outstanding female representatives of the naturopathic. Klara Muche seems nearly forgotten. On the contrary, Anna Fischer-Dückelmann is internationally known till today. The name Anna Fischer-Dückelmann is being used nearly synonymously for the female naturopathy. The present work first describes comprehensively and in detail the lifes and achievements of both women. Moreover, the question had to be answered, if Fischer-Dückelmann and Muche represented a specific “female” naturopathy, which differed from the male representatives of the naturopathy, and where there were congruences. A comparison with the classical medicine follows, where apparent differences and congruences had to be researched.

Fischer-Dückelmann was born into a dynasty of physicians, for Muche, descended from a petty-bourgeois family, a study of medicine was outside any possibility. Fischer-Dückelmann followed her individual path of medicine between naturopathy and the basis-forming conventional medicine as scientifically educated doctor, graduated from University. As an academic she strived for ideal medicine with her comprehensive and therefore sustainable work: scientifically proven and at the same time realistic theories linked to a thereof deducted individualised, integral diagnosis and especially therapy, considering the background of a healthy, natural lifestyle.

On the contrary, Klara Muche did not leave a memorable comprehensive work on the whole naturopathy topic for posterity. Her works were collections of smaller writings on naturopathy based on a vast number of popular lectures. Due to this outstanding fomenting work Muche owes her importance and appreciation, also from the male representatives of naturopathy. As a “quack doctor” Muche was in opposition to the conventional medicine and therefore was persuited by it, but no content-related analysis of her work by the conventional medicine has ever been made.

Fischer-Dückelmann and Muche focussed on women-specific illnesses and health topics. They imparted their femal main focus group medical knowledge and the self-confidence for an active and independent usage of this knowledge. Thus, the role of the women in the society experienced not only an appreciation, but the women first of all became aware of it. Both demanded equality of women, also in sexuality. Fischer-Dückermann justified this among others with the outrageous statement of an existing female orgasm and thus, with a identical sexual emotional life of men and women. Both naturopaths dealt in detail with questions of sexual abstinency und limited the self-determination of males. Based on these views, Fischer-Dückelmann and Muche wanted to define the role of genders anew: the emphasis of differences while highlighting the equality in all areas of life at the same time.

Ihr Werk im Verlag Dr. Kovač

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